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How the economic value of an ecosystem or a society is determined?
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Like everything else:  supply and demand.

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Since the 20th century, the speed of human urbanization is accelerating. According to the 1997 UN-Habitat forecast, more than 60% of the world's population will live in cities by 2030, and the world urbanization level will reach 61% by 2050. Therefore, the city as a gathering place for human beings has become the inevitable development of human history. Even so, human beings are inseparable from the natural world by clothing, food, shelter, and travel. Cities must rely on ecosystems that provide material and energy and can accept their “metabolized” waste. Studies in 29 large cities in the Baltic Sea region of Europe have shown that the area of ​​any urban ecological support system is at least 500 to 1000 times the area of ​​the city. However, at the same time as the speed of urbanization has accelerated, urban environmental problems have become increasingly prominent and the natural environment has been seriously damaged. The contradiction between social, economic development and natural ecological protection has brought the city's development to a severe test.

In 1984, Ma Shijun proposed the concept of “social-economic-natural complex ecosystem”. The city is a concrete embodiment of the socio-economic-natural complex ecosystem. Obviously, the natural ecosystems in cities constitute the framework of the city and are the basis for public health and urban environmental improvement. Urban ecosystems are very effective for in situ solutions to regional environmental problems (air pollution, noise, etc.) within cities. Therefore, the study of urban ecosystem function is even more important. Generally speaking, the urban ecosystem is composed of parks, rivers, forests, farmland, orchard nurseries, street trees, squares, roof gardens and three-dimensional greening. It is a network structure composed of natural elements and artificial elements [3]. This paper focuses on the types and connotations of urban ecosystems and their service functions from the perspective of natural ecosystems, and discusses their importance in evaluating and maintaining urban environment and sustainable development, urban master planning and land use.

 Ecosystem service function

1 Concept and connotation of ecosystem service function

Since the 1970s, ecosystem services have become a scientific term and have become a branch of ecological and ecological economics research. Springer-Verlag first used the term “Service” for ecosystem services and listed the “environmental service” functions of natural ecosystems for humans, including pest control, insect pollination, fisheries, soil formation, soil and water conservation, climate regulation, Flood control, material circulation and atmospheric composition. Later, in 1981, the famous ecologists Ehrilship and Holdren discussed the role of ecosystems in soil fertility and gene bank maintenance, and systematically discussed how biodiversity loss will affect ecosystem services and whether Use advanced science and technology to replace the service functions of natural ecosystems. The term ecosystem service function is quickly accepted by ecologists.

In 1997, Daily defined the ecosystem service function as: the natural environmental conditions and effects that human beings depend on to survive and sustain the ecosystem and ecological processes. He believes that it not only provides food, medicine and other production and living materials for human beings, but also creates and maintains the Earth's life support system and forms the environmental conditions necessary for human survival.

2 Type classification of ecosystem service functions

In 1997, Robert Costanza and others published "Global Ecosystem Service Functional Value and Natural Capital" in Nature, which caused great repercussions worldwide. Costanza et al. divided the global ecosystem types into 16 subcategories of 16 categories including oceans, forests, grasslands, wetlands, water surfaces, deserts, farmland, and cities; ecosystem services were divided into climate regulation, water regulation, and soil erosion control. 17 functions such as material circulation, pollution purification, and cultural entertainment value. The above 17 service function types can be basically divided into two major aspects: production and life.

An ecosystem is a complex of specific functions that interacts with a range of organisms and their surrounding abiotic environments. The city is an artificial-natural composite ecosystem formed in the process of human beings transforming nature and adapting to nature. In fact, compared with real natural ecosystems, urban ecosystems are characterized by rapid development, low energy and water use efficiency, regional strongness, and many human factors. Therefore, they are not mature natural ecosystems. The famous ecologist Odum proposed in 1971 that "the city can be regarded as a parasite of the biosphere."

An ecosystem is a complex of specific functions that interacts with a range of organisms and their surrounding abiotic environments. The city is an artificial-natural composite ecosystem formed in the process of human beings transforming nature and adapting to nature. In fact, compared with real natural ecosystems, urban ecosystems are characterized by rapid development, low energy and water use efficiency, regional strongness, and many human factors. Therefore, they are not mature natural ecosystems. The famous ecologist Odum proposed in 1971 that "the city can be regarded as a parasite of the biosphere."

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