The term anafilaksi comes from Ancient Greek, ana which means "opponent", and phylaxis which means "defense".
Based on the literature I've read, Anaphylaxis can be interpreted as "a severe allergic reaction that occurs suddenly and can cause death".
Anaphylaxis is usually indicated by several symptoms including an itchy rash, throat swelling, dyspnea, vomiting, lightheadedness, and low blood pressure. These symptoms will occur in minutes to hours.
in general, this disease is caused by insect bites, food, and medicine. Other causes can be exposure to latex. In addition cases can occur for no apparent reason.
The mechanism of anaphylaxis involves the release of mediators from certain white blood cells. The release of this protein can be caused by an immune system reaction or by other causes not related to the immune system.
The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based on symptoms and signs in a person after exposure to potential allergens.
The initial management of anaphylaxis is giving epinephrine injections, infusion, and adjusting the position of the body horizontally. Additional epinephrine doses can be given if needed. Bringing an automatic epinephrine injector and identification regarding medical conditions is recommended for people who have a history of anaphylaxis.
Anaphylaxis is more common among adolescents and women.
Do not underestimate this disease, because this disease is a type of dangerous and deadly disease
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that results in death if late treated medically. This happens when the body's immune system secretes chemicals as a reaction to allergens, which makes the body shock. These symptoms occur within minutes even seconds after a chemical is released, then deadly severe symptoms, such as narrowing of the respiratory tract, difficulty breathing, and drastic reduction in blood pressure. Anaphylactic attacks can be treated by injecting epinephrine to regulate symptoms and prevent complications.
Causes of Anaphylaxis
The immune system forms antibodies and secretes chemicals to protect the body and fight foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.
However, in anaphylaxis, the immune system overreacts to certain allergens. This causes severe allergic symptoms that have the potential to make the body shock.
Another type of anaphylaxis is called anaphylactoid reaction. Reactions that are not caused by the release of allergic antibodies but because of sports activities (especially aerobic activities) and contrast substances used in certain scans. If the patient does not have allergies and the cause of the symptoms is unknown; this case will be diagnosed as idiopathic anaphylaxis.
Below are some triggers and risk factors for anaphylaxis:
The cause of anaphylaxis depends on the allergies a person has. Allergens that are well-known as triggers for severe attacks include:
Medicines, namely penicillin, aspirin, ibuprofen, morphine, and naproxen
Peanuts or tree nuts such as candlenuts, walnuts, cashews and almonds
Insect stings such as wasps, bees, or fire ants.
History of hereditary allergies or severe allergic reactions
Eczema atopic dermatitis
History of anaphylaxis - A person who has had an anaphylactic attack before will face a higher risk or more severe attack.
Main Symptoms of Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis is an allergic reaction, so the initial symptoms are similar to mild allergic reactions that can disappear on their own without treatment or by taking antihistamines, anaphylactic reactions require immediate medical treatment.
Common symptoms of anaphylactic allergic reactions include:
Niigata (itching which causes red and swollen spots)
Body temperature rises
Further signs include:
Red or pale skin
Feeling a lump in the throat
Narrowing of the airways causes difficulty breathing
The tongue swells
Wheezing (sound produced by narrowing of the respiratory tract)
The pulse is weakening but fast
These symptoms occur within a period of 5-30 minutes after a reaction to an allergen. If the reaction appears to be a mild allergy, it can take up to an hour to determine that the reaction is anaphylactic. Do not immediately sentence the reaction as a mild or normal allergy, you should observe the symptoms carefully because the reaction can become more severe and even turn into anaphylactic shock.