Communism is an ideology that covers social, political and economic sphere of human life. Its aim is to replace private property with the public property and removal of profit-based economy. According to its doctrine means of production (like land, labor, minerals, mines and other natural resources etc.) and resources should be owned by the state only and individual ownership must not be allowed. In fact, communism is the violent form of socialism in many ways.
Karl Marx was the main proponent of communism. He and Friedrich Engels prepared the “communist manifesto”. According to them the working class or “proletariat” must stand up against the capitalist owners, or “bourgeoisie”. They advocated for a new society with no private property, no economic classes and no profits. It attracted many intellectual and bona fide people all around the world who were concerned of the plight of the labors, farmers and poor people and were passionate to change the exploiting system prevailing all around the world. Many people saw ideologies of Marxism and anarchism as the panacea which could have removed all the sufferings of human life.
Doctrine of communism also attracted Chinese people. The success of Bolshevik revolution in Russia amazed their leaders Li Dazhao and Mao Zedong. The Communist Party of China was formed in 1921 and its leader Mao led a revolution and defeated the Kuomintang party in 1949 and China became a communist country. However, in 1950 Mao didn’t find traditional Marxism-Leninism attractive and developed Maoism, the Chinese interpretation of communism.
After Mao’s death in 1976, ideals of communism altered dramatically under Deng Xiaoping, who brought the concept of market socialism. Now, China has a unique form of governance. Its economic structure is not different from that of capitalism but the political system is still based on the doctrine of communism. People can have private property there but government controls every sphere of the activities of the citizens. Dictatorship of the Communist Party of China is not challengeable there. Many people outside China argue that the Communist Party of China follows no ideology. According to them the party organization works pragmatically and works in the direction which keeps its authority intact. Though, the party takes this as the West’s false allegation against China to malign tits image.
China’s constitution of 1982 provides many civil rights like free speech, press, worship, the right to trial, and the right to own private property to the people but this is not being practice as the communist system mainly depends on a totalitarian government. People protest there again and again for implementing democratic system and demands for more rights but the government crushes all such efforts. One such pro-democratic movement of 1989, which is known as Tiananmen Square protest or the June Fourth Incident was trampled by the government with the help of the army.
People of China aspire for the democracy but the ruling party and the army there can never allow people to have such a system. There is very strict censorship within the country and the stance of the government towards its neighbors is also hostile. So, the Chinese people are bound to be communists as they have no other choice.
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Obviously The chinese citizens are communists because communism is actually the style of their government and it is actually what the chinese were actually used to.....
China is really one of the only few truly communist countries that is left, and also even their system is really showing some actual signs of change......
We might as well ask, are they communists?
The Communist Party of China (CPC) owes its foundation and consolidation to China’s alliance with Russia after WWI, but it has changed so much since then that, except for the repressive features of a one-party State, it would be hard to call it communism in the Russian sense.
Like all communist states, China’s emerged out of nationalist sentiments provoked by imperialist policies. We know the story of the Russian revolution of 1917 (although the roots can be traced back to 1905) against Tsar Nicholas II, head of the Romanov family. The triumph of the “Reds” or Bolsheviks opened the door to other populist groups around the world who thought it was about time to put an end to the social disparities caused by a simple man (or woman), allegedly chosen by god in the form of king, emperor, or tsar.
By the end of WWI (1918) Chinese nationalism reacted against what they saw as docile reaction of their government by allowing Japan to hold territories in the Shandong province. The social uprising was quenched but the damaged was already done and those same nationalist would come back and with a vengeance. The Russians saw the chance to gain an ally in China and sent its agents to finance China’s insipient communist movement.
The party was officially founded in 1921, but it was a rather informal and inarticulate group with a few members. The next year it was absorbed by the KMT (Chinese Nationalist Party), which was already consolidated and that merge would allow members to focus their strength instead of dividing forces, which eventually happened. From the beginning there were conservative and progressive or liberal-minded members who saw the future of China in different terms. One group saw it as anti-imperialist, the other as moderate nationalists who may eventually incorporate imperialist economic policies into their philosophy, which ended up happening.
The decade of 1927 to 37 saw Chinese people fighting a civil war to define their ideology. Mao Zedong emerged as leader during this period and after the defeat of the communist against Chiang Kai-shek’s forces. After WWII and the defeat of Japan, Chinese Civil War resumed and this time Mao emerged victorious and founded the People’s Republic of China (1949). The Americans supported Chiang Kai-shek, who ended up ruling Taiwan, while the Russians supported Mao.
The kind of communism Mao implemented in china was different from the one Lenin implemented in Russia. From class struggles to cultural revolutions, China moved from Mao’s communism to Deng Xiaoping’s Chinese socialism. Deng implemented reforms that allowed socialist policies and market economy to co-exist (something Latin American countries were unable to learn or imitate, maybe because it was in their allies’ best interest—Russia and China—that they ruined themselves first so that the big brothers would rescue them, and basically own them).
Jiang Zemin furthered the reforms and saw the return of Hong Kong from British rule. China opened to the world economically while still being a political, social, and ideological dictatorship. Later, Hu Jintao would lead China into more economic prosperity with some social improvements, at the expense of any hint of dissidence or social disturbance. At least Hu was a technocrat who could not care less about power or personal notoriety. He retired voluntarily and allowed current president Xi Jinping. Xi’s administration continues previous policies of commercial opening to the world, while keeping close control on social matters.
Chinese leaders have found the magic formula to allow the world to ignore their social iron fist as long as they play along the international trade game. Chinese economy is so strong people joke about their owning most of the world, and yet you won’t see them bragging a la Chavez or a la Trump. Chinese communism looks now more like savage neo-imperial capitalism. Their philosophy to accumulate military and economic power allows them to transact alliances with the most corrupt regimes, such as Venezuela’s or Syria’s while dealing with Americans, French or Russians on equal grounds.