Well in my own opinion i think that Testing is actually looking for some exact ways to actually score my skills in some specific areas such as math,my communication skills, my tech skills,my religious knowledge or other knowledge about some certain subjects,etc...
i believe that Temptation means the suggestive attempts of wanting to get or do something which you feel is needed to make a great part of your life even when those things might not be actually good for you or good for others too.... for example i am tempted at times to really slap my parents whenever they offend me but that wouldn’t be a good thing for me to do so i ensure that i fight such temptation....another example is that I am tempted to refuse to go to work today even though I know i could actually get fired...there are many examples of that a temptation is...
Test and temptation are two different words with different purpose to which they are initiated.
A test is carried out after some kind of training, teaching and is giving to prove how well an individual was able to impact or hold on to the teachings. It's done to check ones competent while temptation is carried out as a trap to see or witness one's weakness and probably make advance from it to bring failure for an individual.
Temptation comes as a trap or pitfall or hinder one from achieving a purpose. While a test comes as means of verification to know whether an individual is able to perform a task or not, and if not, he or she is equip further.
Test and temptation almost sound synonymous, but depending on the context you are using those words.
Test and temptation are different base on their motives. When one test you, he test you to know your skill or knowledge in other for him to upgrade you, while temptation is a trial with the intention for you to fall and be down graded.
I am guessing the terms here are being used in the religious context.
Theoretically, the former comes from external sources, a process to "establish the quality, performance or reliability of something" (OED). It ca also be defined as "an event or situation that reveals the strength or quality of someone or something by putting them under strain" (idem). The latter is supposed to come from inside, "a desire to do something, especially something wrong or unwise" (idem). However, the term also refers to things or actions that attract us into the wrong direction.
Thus, they may even be considered synonyms, depending on your perception.
For a religious married man a very atractive and outgoing woman who comes to ask for a favor may be seen as a test to their faithfulness, if he feels insecured either about his religious conviction, his commitment to their marriage, or both; or she can be seen as a temptation that must be defeated, anninner urge that must be subdued in the same way you control other appetites or biological urges.
For a non-believer that same woman may just be a hot girl who fell for him, an interested manipulator he should habdle with care, or a femme fatale sent by his wife to see how he reacted. So, both believer and non-believer may end up using the terms one way or another. :)
The most famous temptation in the history is Christianity is probably the one of Christ who, according to three of the Gospels, is tempted by the devil itself. Mark (briefly in 1:13), Matthew (4: 1-11), and Luke (4:1-13) during his 40 day fasting in the dessert. You may argue that Christ was being tested by God and tempted by the devil. That might be the distinction that one can establish, which of course has all kinds of theological and psychological implications.
Tests are supposed to get us through a process from which we will come out stronger after putting in practice all our knowledge and qualities. Temptations are supposed to make us fall prey to our weaknesses
In any case, tests or temptations are supposed to be passed or ressisted. One is expected to emerge victorious from such trials or tribulations to prove our worth or our faith.