No. The payout period has already expired.
Steem has a policy of a 7 day window for voting to occur. Once the 7 day window is closed there is nothing you can do.The vote is just lost
If you would like to reward on author of a post that has expired just look for a newer post or comment and upvote that way. You could comment letting them know that it was for the expired post.
Every post on here pays out exactly after a week. So if your post has paid out already then getting an upvote will make any difference as the post has paid out already.
So No! There is nothing like a second payout on the steem platform.
After seven days of the post the payout matures and paid to the author and curators. Any vote after 7 days of a post will neither consume voting power of the curator nor it will generate any monetary value in the post. So there is no question of a second payout. But one can still engage in that post, like commenting to a post even after 7 days. But there will be no monetary value, no payout after 7 days of the post. So in terms of monetization the post is like a dead rubber after 7 days.
The vote will be recorded in the blockchain but VP and payout~wise, nothing will happen!
There however is a service called Steem-Bounty Forever that allows one to reward posts that are already beyond payout (7 days+). All you need to do is replace the url link of your post from say steemit.com to steem-bounty.com or simply input the link here:: https://steem-bounty.com/services/forever
You will be asked to log-in on steem-bounty to cast your vote there. After you cast your vote, @steem-bounty will automatically create a comment redirecting your upvote there.
This works because Steem-Bounty makes the author of the said post the beneficiary of the comment payout. It is worth to note though that they take a little cut from it (Heh!) but it's a pretty cool way to reward an author's blog post from weeks or months ago :)