What is blood pressure?
Our body cells need oxygen to survive which they receive from blood that carries oxygen to the body cells through a network of arteries. Heart pumps blood into the arteries that applies pressure on them. This pressure is called blood pressure (BP). Many factors can trigger this pressure to increase which puts strain on arteries.
Heart works as a pump. With each heartbeat, blood is forced into the arteries. It generates blood pressure which reaches to maximum when the blood is being pumped. This is called systolic pressure and when the heart rests between beats, blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure.
High blood pressure (hypertension)
A normal adult’s systolic pressure remains less than 120 while diastolic pressure remains above 80 mmhg. In Prehypertension condition systolic and diastolic pressures remain between 120-139 and 81-89 mmHg, respectively. If blood pressure increases beyond this limit, it is called hypertension.
Normally our blood pressure changes according to our activities. It increases when one works heavily and it falls when one sleeps or rests but the continuous state of high blood pressure or hypertension is very damaging as it damages arteries and can cause a heart attack, brain stroke, kidney failure, Blood vessel damage, Aneurysm, Vision loss and off course Erectile dysfunction, etc.
Symptoms of high BP
Normally, hypertension has no specific symptoms. It can be diagnosed after measuring blood pressure with measuring instruments like sphygmomanometer. Also, symptoms like anxiety, dizziness, headaches, nosebleed, fatigue, shortness of breath are a few symptoms of this condition. A person who is obese and takes no exercise or who consumes too much junk food, smokes and drinks heavily should visit a doctor regularly or measure his/her blood pressure in regular intervals as they have more chances of developing high BP.
Low blood pressure (hypotension)
The opposite condition of high BP is Low Blood Pressure (low BP). It is also known as hypotension. If systolic blood pressure is lower than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or diastolic blood pressure is below 60 mm Hg, it is generally considered as low blood pressure.
High Blood Pressure is dangerous but Low blood pressure is equally a matter of concern. Some people have no trouble because of it but for many others, abnormally low blood pressure can cause dizziness and fainting. Abnormal low blood pressure can be life-threatening as well.
There are many causes of low blood pressure. Dehydration, endocrine problems, pregnancy, heart problems, loss of blood, diabetes, severe infections, shock, malnutrition and serious medical or surgical disorders can be the causes of low BP.
Extreme hypotension can result in many life-threatening conditions. Low blood pressure generally has following symptoms and signs:
A normal person’s blood pressure limit is 120/80 mmhg. If it increases, it is high BP and if it lowers it is low BP.
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LOW BLOOD PRESSURE AND HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
LOW BLOOD PRESSURE
LBP is a blood pressure below the normal range or expected value for a person in a given vicinity. It is also referred to as HYPOTENSION.
It is relative because blood pressure varies greatly with age, activity, some medications and an underlying medical conditions.
Conditions of the nervous system, conditions that do not begin in the nervous system and drugs can result to LBP.
Neurological conditions such as changing position from lying to more vertical (postural hypotension), stroke, shock, lightedness after urinating and defeating, Parkinson's disease, neuropathy and simple fright can result to LBP.
There are other non neurological conditions that can also lead to LBP. They include bleeding, dehydration, heart disease, adrenal insufficiency, infections, pregnancy, prolonged bed rest etc.
Hypotension can also be caused by drugs such as alcohol, heart medications, depression medications (such as antitryptyline/ELAVIL) etc.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
HBP also known as hypertension is a repeated increase in blood pressure of an individual exceeding 140 over 90mmHg.
Chronic high blood pressure can possibly cause blood vessel alteration in the back of the eye (retina), renal failure, abnormal thickening of the heart muscle and brain damage
There's no specific cause for high blood pressure that has been found in 90% of patients.
Dietary changes, regular aerobic exercise and proper medications such as beta-blockers, diuretics, blood vessel dictators and others can go a long way in the treatment of HBP.
I hope this answer helps.