This is a lovely question on literature!!!
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The Classical Period or Golden Age of Greece is from around 500 to 300 BC. A Golden Age is a period of time during which there were a veryhi high level of achievement in a particular field of activity, especially in art or literature. It is also known as the classical mythology, the first and best age of humankind when existence was great, prosperous, and innocent. It is the most flourishing and outstanding period, especially in the history of an art or nation.
The golden age of poetry is the greatest classical period of Latin literature, occupying approximately the 1st century BC and represented by such writers as Cicero and Virgil
A Golden Age is also a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished. The term originated from early Greek and Roman poets. They used to refer it to a time when mankind lived in a better time, life and best standard of living.
In my own opinion, If I could choose one century in human history that had the greatest collection of artists, writers and painters and creativeness as a whole it will be Romantic Age .
Romantic period: (Romantic era) was an artistic, musical, literary, and intellectual movement that was originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Note that Romantic Age was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical.
Romantic Age was partly a reaction to the industrial Revolution, and the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature.
I fell in love with William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
He was one of the giants; almost single-handedly he revivified English poetry. They wrote instead about simple, natural things in plain language, though they retained many of the older poetic structures. And they still subscribed to the notion that poetry had to be "fancier" than prose — an idea Wordsworth was to denounce.
Poetic language was devitalized, and so was the thematic province of poetry. overflow of emotions. Poetry is not dependent upon rhetorical and literary devices, but is the free expression of the poet's thought and feeling. The poet is a teacher and must strive to reveal truth, not through scientific analysis and abstraction, but through an imaginative awareness of persons and things. He may broaden and enrich our human sympathies and our enjoyment of nature in this way. He must communicate his ideas and emotions through a powerful re-creation of the original experience. For this, he must have a sensibility far beyond that of the ordinary individual.
He tells how he weeded out the dead expressions from the older poetic vocabulary and substituted the flesh-and-blood language of the common person. Poetry and prose, he says, differ only as to presence or absence of rhyme; they do not differ as to language. For Wordsworth, the important thing was the emotion a rouse by the poem, not the poem itself (hence his lukewarm regard for form).
I hope this makes sense???
I can't exactly choose one century, so let me choose two. I'd choose the 17th, 18th and 19th century as a golden era of art.
Painters: Rembrandt van Rujn (1606 - 1669), Johannes Vermeer (1932 - 1675), Claude Monet (1840-1926), Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), Édouard Manet (1832-1883), Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863), Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), just to name a few.
Musicians: Claudio Monteverdi, Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, George Frideric Handel, Antonio Vivaldi, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, George Frideric Handel, Franz Schubert, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Richard Wagner, Jeanne Calment and Franz Liszt etc.
Writers: Voltaire, John Milton, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe and Alexander Pope, Lord Byron, Jane Austen, William Blake, Thomas Paine and William Wordsworth, Ernest Hemingway, Edgar Allan Poe, Mark Twain, Oscar Wild, Charles Dickens, Virginia Woolf, Franz Kafka, Tolstoy, Lord Byron, Rudyard Kipling, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Victor Hugo etc.
These are heavy names, engraved in history books and not only. We all know these names, have seen, listened to or read some of their artworks. Those paintings are worth millions, those music pieces are played all over the word and those novels and poems are thought in schools. They made history.
In essence, every art has been a golden era in a region, but if we review perhaps the era of antiquity or an era when humans still used traditional weapons such as swords, spears and so on, perhaps this era is more accurately said as the golden era of art.
One interesting era in art to me is the Ancient art works. The art era of ancient Egypt and the Mesopotamia civilization interest me: primarily because at that stage, the people were able to produce intriguing art works despite the level civilization then.
The durability of art works then and the information they communicate are distinctive features note worthy that characterise their work. Hieroglyphic writing that was developed in those era of early civilization was key to our modern writing pattern. Pictures were used as writing pattern.
Ancient China developed Jiahu symbols; cuneiform writing style developed in Mesopotamia; popular Egyptian hieroglyphic writing and more.