Yes. In fact Android is Linux based as well. Android applications are coded in java because they are run on a java virtual machine on top of Linux kernel.
There are other linux based smartphone operating systems but they aren't as common as android. I have mentioned some notable Linux based smartphone operating systems below:
Sailfish OS. Sailfish OS is a general purpose linux distribution generally used as a mobile operating system. It is one of the most popular linux based mobile operating system. Learn more about it on wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sailfish_OS
Ubuntu Touch. It is a free and open source mobile Operating System. You can install this system on your phone and there are some smartphones that ship with it. Purism's Librem 5 smartphone is one such example. For more details on this smartphone, visit: https://www.zdnet.com/article/ubuntu-touch-lives-on-in-purisms-librem-5-smartphone/
Plasma Mobile. A Kubuntu based mobile operating system developed by KDE community. You need to manually install in on a mobile to use it.
For now, Android is currently dominating the Smartphone OS market. but do you know that there are OS phones other than Android?
Actually there are various other mobile operating systems out there that are more attractive even better. just the following is the operating system Smartphone based on Linux.
Here is the Android OS Linux
Next Ubuntu touch, Ubuntu turns out to be available also for smartphones, if we look at this os it is very similar to the desktop version with the application panel / menu on the left and the color that is characteristic of ubuntu. Ubuntu touch itself is currently being developed by UBports.
Devices currently supported include handsets where Ubuntu Touch is launched, together with OnePlus One, Fairphone 2, and Nexus 5 (Hammerhead). and many more are in active development, such as OnePlus 2 and OnePlus 3.
Sailfish OS was originally developed by the Nokia development team. Nokia had previously launched Jolla OS, then developed jointly by Jolla, Mer (developer of middleware stack), Alliance Sailfish (a group of companies) and community members.
SailfZsh OS was created by a team of Nokia developers who came together to create a company called Jolla after former Microsoft executive Stephen Elop joined the company as CEO. Elop closes all open source projects on Nokia, including his mobile operating system, MeeGo. So the Sailfish OS is a continuation of the abandoned operating system MeeGo, which is based on Maemo and Moblin.
Plasma Mobile is a Mobile Operating System based on Kubuntu. Plasma Mobile has all the potential to become the most open mobile operating system. Seeing the reputation of the KDE community to stick to open standards, this could be in conjunction with the Firefox OS, the most open mobile operating system.
The KDE community is currently actively contributing to the development of Mobile Plasma. Perhaps the best thing about the Plasma Mobile project is that you can run Plasma desktop applications and widgets, as well as the Ubuntu Touch application. This gives the project a wider choice of applications than Ubuntu Touc.
Tizen was more or less created by Intel who had died and had been raised many times, from Mobiln »Maemo» Meego »LiMO and now held by Tizen. After Elop closed every door on open source on Nokia, Intel and Samsung gathered to create Tizen, a mobile operating system that not only runs on phones and tablets but also on smartwatches.