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What is at the extreme bottom of the ocean?

The extreme bottom of the oceans are the most mysterious places. People have not gone that far yet to identify what really is inside the bottom of the ocean. 

I have seen an interesting video from the planet Earth series which describes about living beings that live deep inside the ocean. These living beings are usually blind and has no visibility to see anything. One main reason for this could be because they have no necessity to see anything as everything out there will be completely dark. They find their prey and food in complete darkness. 

As the creatures live in complete darkness, they don't even have any color in their body except white color. They don't get to see any light or brightness at all. There is no possibility that sun's light can reach that level of depth. The team that shot the picture of these creatures used an infrared cameras to capture their movement and lifestyle. I don't remember more details about them. You can Google and find information or watch the documentary. 

Some of these creatures deep inside the ocean even have transparent bodies. They are bioluminescent. 


The bottom of the ocean is the lowest point of the earth and the farthest man has ever explore. It has been so difficult to go beyond some depth as the Mariana trench is more than 1500 miles deep.

In history, only two people has been able to face the challenge that has ensued different question about life in the deep.


In 1960,Jacques Piccard and Navy Lt Din Walsh descended into the deep in a 5 hour journey to know what has been hidden and whether life exist there. As found in my research about their journey, They were unable to get any thing much tangible from it. There was total darkness in the deep and the temperature was a little above freezing.


Jacques mentioned seeing a creature in form of a flat Fish. This rose a lot of controversies on whether fishes could survive at that temperature but the power of adaptation kept people wondering it could be possible but all the conclusion is still under uncertainties.


The challenge didn't stop as research kept going day in day out on what the deep could be harbouring. Mainly the aim and objective of scientists is to know the types of micro organisms present and some other things which could lead to breakthrough in biomedical and biotechnology.

With the persistent research by the use of unmanned vehicles as scout ,some new organisms were seen owing from Molluscs to animals with transparent head.


The Water covers more than 70% of the Earth and ever since man has been longing to know the secret that lies in the sea depth,nothing much has been acquired which means there are still a lot to be done to discover the miseries hidden beneath the sea.

Source - http://www.deepseachallenge.com/the-expedition/mariana-trench


Essentially, no one is certain of the things that lie at the bottom of the sea. The oceans deepest darkest deep depths have proven more challenging to reach than traveling to the moon. In all of human history, 12 people have reached the moon, while only three have reached the bottom of the deepest part of the ocean: the Challenger Deep. The deepest point- located within the Marina Trench, reaches nearly 10,000 meters deep- beyond the depths which light can reach.

It was January 23, 1960, when a team of scientists set out to make the expedition to the bottom of the Challenger Deep. The engineers questioned whether the dive would be possible for humans to survive, backed by the most sophisticated engineering of the time- nevermind discovering any life.

The two to make the dive were Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh, veteran submariners ready to tackle the ocean's deepest depths. The sea was storming, yet the crew decided to go forth with the mission. Shortly after 8:00 am, the team started the dive. Soon, they would be faced with nearly 20,0000 tons of water weighing down on them, accumulating more than 1000 times the atmospheric pressure.

As the submarine approached the depth of 24,000 feet, they reached a depth no one else has ever before achieved. More than 5 hours later, the crew reached the bottom. To their surprise, however, they were not alone.

"Slowly, very slowly, this fish—apparently of the sole family, about a foot long and half as wide—moved away from us, swimming half in the bottom ooze, and disappeared into the black night, the eternal night which was its domain."

Said Piccard as he recalled the events of his dive.

At the depths of Challenger Deep, it should be impossible for calcium to exist in a solution, leaving a great question into how the creatures sustained a skeletal structure. Further perplexing the scientists was the fact there was an absence of all light, similarly putting into question how lifeforms could possibly exist in such extreme environments.

The discovery led to the curiosity for more scientists to investigate potential life forms never before seen at the bottom of the Mariana Trench. Since the 1960's, many more missions revealed further complexing creatures which dwell in the deepest regions of the ocean. Seemingly every dive which reaches the bottom prompts more discoveries.

One of the most sophisticated dives conducted with the research vessel Falkor which dropped off "landers" off of its side. Each lander contained high-tech cameras which witnessed new species emerge before it. The landers used air pockets encased in glass to provide both buoyancy control and an area for the camera to take clear images. However, a single crack becomes catastrophic as the tens of thousands of kilograms of pressure implode the structure, sending out a shockwave equivalent to that of a stick of dynamite.

Unfortunately, such an event occurred with two of the vessels which only one was able to be recovered. Nonetheless, the crafts were able to tape some of the most incredible footage on the planet, bearing witness to whole new species of fish and crustaceans.

One particularly peculiar discovery was that of an unknown variety of the species Snailshish, breaking records of the deepest fish ever recorded.

"We saw the deepest living fish ever recorded,"

Says Drazen, one of the scientists conducting the mission. He continues,

"[It was] definitely something new. We took one look at the thing and were amazed — big, wide, winglike fins, this eel-like tail and this scalloped face. It was very unique."

As stands, the current record for the deepest living fish, either caught or seen on video were discovered by the Falkor at depths exceeding more than 8,000 meters. The creature was an entirely unknown species of snailfish, hosting "broad wing-like fins, an eel-like tail and slowly glided over the bottom", according to Schmidt Ocean Institute.


New species of Snailfish [Image Source: Schmidt Ocean Institute]

The landers carried with them small baited traps which drew curious fish closer to investigate the food, as well as capture some of the fish to be further examined at the surface. Unfortunately, none of the fish survived the decompression as they were surfaced.

However, the research led scientists to further investigate the techniques implemented in the fishes' biology which enables them to live- and thrive- at such extreme depths that would crush any other organism which lives on the surface. As it turns out, the fish are able to sustain thousands of times more pressure than atmospheric creatures through their unique use of the chemical trimethylamine oxide. The chemical allows the cells within the creatures to remain flexible, protecting them both from pressure and from being penetrated by saltwater.