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What is a good physics book to learn about laser cooling techniques?
For a graduate student, preferably something recently written so it's modern and up to date with latest improvements and technologies<br>
That's a really great question. I assume you've checked Google Books and have seen the book Laser Cooling and Trapping (Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics). However, that was published in 1999 and you are looking for something more recent. Looking at the public catalog of the U.S. Copyright Office for any registered copyrighted works containing the words "laser cooling" in the title (URL source below) it looks like anything recent is just research papers.

It doesn't look like anything you are looking for (at least in the English language) is more recent than 2003. In cases like this it makes me think maybe some of this kind of scientific research is being classified. Since cooling atoms down is one of the possible ways to achieve quantum computing/quantum cryptography it wouldn't surprise me if this was the case.

This is becoming a more common question for today's modern computer science majors

You can get a broad selection form update summary with up todate methods, but not necessarily information on the latest setup or equipment which would naturally be patented and some kept confidential

Here are some books to check out:

Optical Refrigeration: Science and Applications of Laser Cooling of SolidsJun 8, 2009
by Richard I. Epstein and Mansoor Sheik-Bahae

Laser Control of Atoms and MoleculesJan 1, 2012
by Vladilen Letokhov

Coherent Atomic Manipulation and Cooling: Interferometric Laser Cooling and Composite Pulses for Atom Interferometry (Springer Theses)Aug 20, 2015
by Alexander J. Dunning

Laser Cooling: Fundamental Properties and ApplicationsOct 6, 2016
by Galina Nemova

Laser cooling and trappingMay 17, 2017
by Vasant Natarajan


at this time we will discuss about the problematics of complex numbers, complex functions, contour Integral, and transformation.

What's that complex number? For example I have a + ib where a and b are real numbers, and i is a certain imaginary number having properties i 2 = -1. The real number a is also called the real part of the complex number, and the real number b is called the imaginary part.

Complex Numbers
Complex Functions
The Cauchy-Riemann Equation
Harmonic / Laplace Equations
Cauchy Integral Theorem
Contour Deformation Theorem
Laurent Series
Residue Theorem
Fourier and Laplace transformation and its reverse transformation

1.) Computational Engineering

(Handbook: Ane not using Textbook)

In this matkul we are taught skills to solve any mathematical problems with the help of computer. Because, not all mathematical equations or problems can be solved analytically, sometimes the solutions obtained require using numerical methods.

Well interesting here we will be a lot of solving mathematical problems such as:

Linear Equations
Look for polynomial roots
Function Approach
So, there's no need to take pictures anymore when there are complicated mathematical equations, so if you can operate the software hehe ..

Well the software used usually there are two that is for manual system and more easily operated generally use Ms.Excel and for advancenya here ane using Scilab (free version of mathlab).

However, in the use of scilab, we need the ability of programming language (Scilab use C language), but gausah fear, in youtube a lot of examples how to write syntax from the scilabnya own with more simple and easy.

2.) Logic and Digital Systems

Handbook: Digital Logic Circuit Analysis and Design; Victor P Nelson, et al

As the name implies this matkul rely only on logic ability and bener-bener not count samsek!

So the picture is how we can solve simple logic problems and make the solution digitally and in applying with the help of electronic devices.

For example: there is a tank and filled with water from a water tap. Then, we are required to make the solution so that when the tank is full, the water tap closes and when the water tank runs out, the water tap opens again.

So the correlation runs to electronics again. After we have found the implementation using both AND, OR, NAND, etc. (Read about logic gates here) so that we can find what electronic component is fit to solve this problem (generally).

3). Fluid Mechanics

(Handbook: Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fox and McDonalds)
In this matkul course we are taught to be able to observe and analyze the behavior and phenomena that exist in the movement of a fluid. Unfortunately, this matkul is really very much dependent on calculus such as integral and differential.

I am sure that during high school we are equipped with the principle of fluid such as archimedes principle and hydrostatic pressure for static fluid and bernoulli equation for dynamic fluid. All that will be reused, but surely we are more invited to understand exactly where the hell are those formulas? so we can solve every complicated fluid problem both static and dynamic.

Uniquely here pak dosennya always give the exam every 2 weeks once wkwk (Exam -, -).

Lesson learned: (Please if you want to find yourself in the polls ya kekeke)

Pathline, streamline, and streakline
Static fluids
Control Volume Analysis on continuum fluid
Differential Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Laminer or Turbulance flow

4.) Wave Phenomena

(Handbook: Fundamentals of wave phenomena; Akira Hirose)
The term popular yes matkul phenom. Here we will be reminded again during high school about wave chapter. Yup, starting from the discussion what is the wavelength, frequency, reflection wave phenomenon, snellius law, etc. But here will meet again new terms such as impedance, dispersion, etc.

Oiya, not just a wave of mechanics aja lho ... here we are going to discuss the electromagnetic waves as well. Examples are about parallel cable, coaxial cable, and its use in TV-antenna transmission cable, etc.

Here also not the same as in high school that lived in entering the formula, here really invited to analyze the wave by using mathematical equations.
if you want more tau looking at the address below.

Harmonic Oscillator
Force Oscillation
Energy, Power, and Wave momentum
Transverse and longitudinal waves
LC transmission Line
Impedance and Reflection
Dispersion and Non Dispersion Wave
Electromagnetic Wave
cooling technique
Initially for preservation of ice or snow evenings since 1000 BC. In 1850 began to be used cooling machine with air conditioning material. Then use ammonia, toxic toxicity, until finally found in safer freon cooler and that until now.1.2 Type and 1. Machine Type
Type and type of cooling machine with usability and power heard. For example, air conditioners for large offices are different from air conditioners for households. Likewise for the type of refrigerator.Because in the market already available various types and types of cooling machines.
2. Types of Cooling Machines
Of the various machines that exist, also viewed from various uses and functions, which is usually known there are 4 kinds of cooling machines, among others:

3. Refrigerant

This type is better known as a refrigerator or refrigerator. Type and capacity vary, and much for households. Its function is to cool drinks, preserve foodstuffs, produce ice. Temperature for cabinet esstan 3o -100 C

4. Freezers

This one type is no different from the refrigerator, it's just bigger capacity, and the temperature is lower.

5. Air Conditioner (AC)

Humans are always trying to make things around for the better and the atmosphere more comfortable. Air Conditioner is one that can meet that need. By making things cooler. As the name implies an air conditioner means that air conditioning is required at least 3 A rules. Air temperature

Is the degree of heat or cold from the air as measured by thermo-meter. Air must be cooled to keep the temperature inside the room cool. Room temperature is cool and comfortable is 240 - 270 C

a. Humidity

To get cool and comfortable air in the room, we have to regulate the air by taking air out of the air or air in the air.

b. Fan

No solution is used for AC or AC, but also works and works well from both of the above equipment.

c. Cooling base
Cold is the result created by cooling machines especially freezers and freezers. While the air conditioner is more cool. The creation process created by a cooling machine is a clone of the cold caused by nature. And worst of all is the process of evaporation because of the heat will trigger cold air accommodation. Cold occurs because of evaporation, and evaporation takes place because of the heat.
1 Comment


The refrigerant is a substance which is readily converted from gas to liquid or vice versa, used to remove heat from the evaporator and dispose of it in the condenser. Refrigerant-11 (R-11), R-12, R-13, R-22.


The compressor oil for refrigerating machines shall have special properties for this purpose. The compressor oil is used to protect and lubricate the moving parts of the compressor. Because in fact the compressor oil is always connected, even mixed with the refrigerant inside the compressor and flows together to all parts of the system. The oil must withstand the high temperature and pressure of the compressor and still can provide lubrication and protect the compressor parts move to avoid wear and break.


All air conditioners have a control operation or control panel consisting of 3 parts:

1. Selector switch (main link) or main switch. There are 2 types: Rotation Switch (rotate) and Push Switch (press). The function of both is the same, to run the fan only or run the fan from the compressor together.

2. Thermostat (temperature control), often also called Air temperature control point is: set the temperature limits in the room, set the duration of the compressor stops, and stop, re-run the compressor automatically.

3. Ventilation control (airflow control), there is a knob in the rotary or the rod is moved to the right / left or up / down to get the position Close: no air coming in or out, open: open damper inward to drain the air out of the room, Fresh: the damper opens outward, to drain fresh air from outside into the room.


Installed to protect the compressor, which uses bi-metal and heater. Its work is influenced by too large amperes and heat from motors or compressors. This bi-metal is connected by contacts, which can open the contact if the amperage is too large and the heat from the motor or compressor is too high. After a few minutes the motor and compressor cool down, and contacts can reconnect.


Start capacitor is planned to be used in a short time of no more than 3 seconds and not repeatedly. Usually only takes 1 second to rotate a large motor up to 7 hp, very rarely requires start time up to 3 seconds. In a hermetic compressor, the start capacitor must be used with a relay, to connect and reload the flow of power from the start capcitor.